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Indian National Flag History in English

1906 - A National Flag of India was hoisted for the first time in Calcutta (present Kolkata) during the Swadeshi Movement and Boycott Movement. The National Flag had:
  • 3 stripes of colors - green, yellow and red
  • Top green band with 8 lotus flowers
  • 'Vandemataram' written in Devanagari script on the middle yellow band
  • The bottom red band with Sun in the right corner and crescent moon in the left corner

1907 - A flag similar to the flag hoisted in 1906 with slight modifications was raised by Madame Bhikaji Cama in Paris.
  • The top saffron band with 8 flowers
  • Middle yellow band with 'Vandemataram' in Devanagari script.
  • Bottom green band with crescent moon and star to the right and sun in the left.
  • The flag was exhibited in Berlin at the Socialist Conference and came to be called the Berlin Committee Flag.
1917 - During Home Rule Movement Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak hoisted another flag which signified autonomous rule for Indians with the colonial empire.
  • The British Union Jack flag at the top left corner.
  • 9 horizontal bands with alternate red and green colours.
  • Black triangle to the right.
  • 5 stars and 2 stars in row from the British flag.
1921 - In Bezwada (present Vijayawada) session of INC a young man named Pingali Venkayya presented a design of the flag to Gandhi.
  • The flag had 3 stripes of white, green and red colors representing multiple communities living in harmony in India.
  • A spinning wheel was imposed in the centre signifying country's progress.
1931 - Pingali Venkayya's flag was adopted with slight modifications.
  • Red band was replaced with saffron band at the top. Saffron colour represents courage
  • Middle white band represents peace and bottom green band represents fertility and growth
  • Spinning wheel at the centre of the white band
1947 - The Constituent Assembly formally adopted Pingali Venkayya's flag for independent India and the spinning wheel was replaced by Dharma Chakra of Emperor Asoka symbolizing truth and life. This is called Tiranga.


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