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National Identity Elements - National Symbols of India

Guest Post by Veda

National Flag

  • The Tricolor Flag is horizontal with three strips of colors.
  • Orange / saffron (Kesaria) at the top, white in the middle and green at the bottom in equal proportions.
  • There is a navy blue Dharma Chakra (Wheel of Justice) at the centre of the white strip.
  • The Dharma Chakra is adopted from Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.
  • The diameter of the Dharma Chakra approximates to the width of the white band.
  • The Dharma Chakra has 24 spokes.
  • The present flag was designed by a Telugu man named Pingali Venkayya.
  • The design of the present National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on July 22, 1947.
  • The ratio of the width to its length is 2:3.

National Anthem

  • The Hindi version of Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India.
  • It was composed by Rabindranath Tagore in Bengali language.
  • The full song consists of five stanzas and it takes 52 seconds to play the full song.
  • The Hindi version of the song was adopted by the Constituent Assembly in on January 24, 1950.
  • The song was first sung on December 27th, 1911 at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress.

National Song

  • Vande Mataram written in Sanskrit is the National song of India.
  • The song is composed by Bakim Chandra Chatterjee.
  • It is a part of his famous novel named Anand Math.

National Emblem

  • The National Emblem of India is adopted from the Lion Capital of Asoka in Sarnath
  • The Emblem was adopted by Govt of India on January 26th, 1950.
  • The emblem consists of four Asiatic lions that stand back to back on a circular abacus.
  • The abacus has the sculptures of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion that are separated by wheels over a bell-shaped lotus.
  • The Sanskrit words ‘Satyameva Jayate’ are inscribed at the bottom which means ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’.
  • These words are taken from Mundaka Upanishad.

National Bird

  • The Indian peafowl commonly known as the peacock is the National Bird of India.
  • The peacock which symbolizes beauty with grace is declared as the National Bird in 1963.
  • The scientific name of peacock is Pavo cristatus.

National Animal

  • The majestic black and yellow striped Bengal Tiger is made the National Animal of India.
  • Prior to 1973, Lion was the National Animal of India.
  • As the tigers were reducing in number, the Government of India launched ‘Project Tiger’ in 1973 to preserve tigers and declared tiger as the National Animal of India.
  • The scientific name of tiger is Panthera tigris.

National Flower

  • The beautiful pink lotus is the National Flower of India.
  • The flower is considered highly sacred for Hindus as Goddess Lakshmi (the Hindu goddess of wealth) is believed to be seated on this flower.
  • The scientific name of lotus is Nelumbo nucifera.


National Tree

  • Indian fig tree commonly known as banyan tree is the National Tree of India.
  • The tree is characterized with its longevity and is considered as an immortal tree.
  • The tree has high medical value and is considered highly sacred for Hindus.
  • The scientific name of banyan tree is Ficus bengalensis.

National River

  • Holy Ganges i.e. River Ganga is the National River of India.
  • It is the longest river in India.
  • River Ganga originates from Gangotri glacier in the Himalayas.
  • At this place it is known as River Bhagirathi.
  • River Ganga flows down to Northern plains to form the river basin.
  • It forms one of the most fertile lands of the world.
  • River Ganga is highly sacred for Hindus.

National Fruit

  • Mango is the National Fruit of India.
  • It is the King of Fruits and is the rich source of Vitamins A, B, C and D.
  • Mango is a sub-tropical seasonal juicy fruit which is available during summer season in India.
  • The fruit is high in vitamins and minerals.
  • The scientific name of Mango is Mangifera indica.

National Game

  • Hockey is the National Game of India.
  • The Indian Hockey team got six consecutive gold medals in the International Olympic Games during the periods from 1928 to 1956.

National Calendar

  • The calendar that is based on Saka Era with the Hindu month of Chaitra as the first month of the year is adopted as the National Calendar of India.
  • Gregorian calendar is followed officially.

National Aquatic Animal

  • River Dolphin is the National Aquatic Animal of India.
  • These dolphins live in freshwaters.
  • Its scientific name is Platanista gangetica.

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