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English Grammar - Parts of Speech

A fair knowledge of basic English grammar is essential for improving communicative and writing skills in English. Parts of speech is helpful / useful in framing sentences in the right way.

There are 8 parts of speech in English grammar. These are (i)verb  (ii) noun  (iii) adjective (iv) adverb  (v) pronoun (vi) preposition (vii) conjunction and (viii) interjection.

Verb is a doing word or an action word.  Any word that states that some action is being done, such word is called a verb.  
E.g:  I am learning English grammar. In this sentence, the word learning shows that some action is being done. In this sentence the word learning is a verb.

2. Noun
Any word in a sentence that states a thing or a person is a noun In simple words nouns are the naming words.
E.g 1: The girl is playing. In this sentence the word girl which states a person is a noun. Let us see another example on this.
E.g 2: The student kept the book on the table. In this sentence you can see 3 naming words - student, book and table. In this sentence these three are the nouns.

3.  Adjective
In a sentence, some words are used to tell something more about a noun.Such words which describe a noun are called adjectives.  
E.g: The teacher told us an interesting story. In this sentence the words 'teacher' and 'story' are the nouns and the word interesting tells how the story (noun) is. Hence it is an adjective. Let us see another example.
E.g:  It is a dense forest. Here 'forest' is the noun and the word dense describes about the noun and hence it is an adjective.

4. Adverb
Just as an adjective describes a noun, so also the word that describes a verb is called an adverb. These words tell us more about a verb. Let us see two examples of adverb.
E.g:  The tortoise walked slowly to the winning point. In this sentence 'walked' is the verb and the word 'slowly' tells how the action was done. Hence the word 'slowly' in the sentence is an adverb.
E.g: The lion roared ferociously.  The word 'roared' is the verb and  the word 'ferociously' tells how the roar of a lion is, hence the word 'ferociously' is an adverb.

5. Pronoun
A word in a sentence which is used in place of a noun is called a pronoun.  These are the words that replace the nouns.
E.g:  When Tom went out to paint the fence, his aunt shouted at him. In this sentence, observe the words 'his' and 'him' , these two words are used to replace the noun 'Tom'. Hence words like 'he', 'she', 'her' ;they', them' and all such words that replace nouns are called the pronouns. 

6.  Preposition
This is an important part of speech which gives meaning to a sentence. These words mostly link / connect a noun with a word or the other noun in the sentence. Prepositions are the linking / connecting words between a noun and other word in a sentence. It is very important to use the correct preposition that goes with a  noun. Sometimes even 2- 3 different prepositions go with a noun.
E.g: The boy kept his toy in the shelf.  In this sentence the word 'in' is a preposition which connects two nouns 'toy' and 'shelf. If you simply say 'the boy kept his toy the shelf', then no message is conveyed in this sentence. But when you add this small word 'in' which is a preposition, you can immediately understand what is being conveyed in the sentence. So important these prepositions are in a sentence.

7.  Conjunction  
These are the words that join clauses, words or sentences.
E.g 1:  The children went to the park and played there for a long time. In this sentence the word 'and' which is used to join two sentences 'the children went to the park', they played there for a long time' is called conjunction. Let us see another example.
E.g 2:   Tom woke up late in the morning as he watched a late night move. Here the word 'as' joins two sentences 'Tom woke up late in the morning' is one sentence, the other sentence is 'he watched a late night movie'. The word 'as' which is a conjunction joins these two sentences.

8.  Interjection 
Though this is not an important part of speech, yet it is used in the sentences for showing short exclamations / expressions mostly with the use of an exclamatory mark.
E.g:  Wow!, that's really awesome. The word 'wow' which shows an expression is an interjection.